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METAL MINING TECHNOLOGY IN JAPAN 8

Outokumpu type flash furnaces have been built worldwide before now. Except for nickel or pyrite processing furnaces and the ones ceased from operation, twenty three flash furnaces are in operation at the twenty two copper smelters (Saganoseki Smelter has two flash furnaces). Tab.1 and Fig.5 show whereabouts of these copper smelting flash

Converting Process - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Feb 01, 2010· Barry A. Morris, in The Science and Technology of Flexible Packaging, 2017 Abstract. The purpose of the converting process is to transform raw materials in the form of polymer pellets or film substrates (including paper and foil) into a final packaging structure. This often involves more than one process or step that may include film formation, orientation, …

II. Thin Film Deposition - Harvard University

• Impurity level • Deposition ... • If the cathode-anode space (L) is less than the dark space length ¬ionization, few excitation ¬cannot sustain discharge • On the other hand, if the Ar pressure in the chamber is too low ¬Large electron mean-free path ¬2nd electrons reach anode before colliding with Ar atoms

(PDF) FLASH CONVERTING AFTER 10 YEARS

Converting Furnace, using Kennecott-Outokumpu Flash Converting technology, to produce blister copper containing 99% copper. The blis ter copper is refined in two Kumera anode

Economic Impacts of Air Emission Standards: Primary Copper ...

Converter Anode Furnace Concentrate Slag Matte Slag Blister Product Figure 2-1. Primary copper production. (now typically over 50 percent copper) is charged to the converters. The converter operation continues to remove sulfur, iron, and other impurities and produces blister copper, which is at least 95 percent copper. The blister

WO1998012360A1 - Process for refining high-impurity copper ...

A process for refining high-impurity blister copper to anode quality copper is disclosed. In an oxidation step of a blister copper refining stage, soda ash fluxing removes antimony and arsenic while also removing sulfur and iron. In a deoxidation step of the blister copper refining stage, sulfur hexafluoride is injected at a controlled oxygen concentration to remove bismuth while …

Copper Smelting - IFC

impurities (as converter slag) and to form blister copper. Blister copper is further refined as either fire-refined copper or anode copper (99.5% pure cop-per), which is used in subsequent electrolytic refining. In fire refining, molten blister copper is placed in a fire-refining furnace, a flux may be added, and air is blown through the molten ...

Rio Tinto Kennecott smelter - Outotec

Jul 03, 2017· Chemical impurity levels of anodes a RTK are among the highest in the world, yet production of ASTM Grade 1 cathode is possible due to precipitation of bismuth and antimony as a complex of arsenates in the porous anode slime layer (formed with elevated lead in anode). ... Flash converting process technology is also increasingly being ...

An update on Flash Converting at Kennecott Utah Copper ...

Abstract. The Flash Converting Furnace at Kennecott Utah Copper converted over 465kmt of high- grade matte in 2002 but was restricted due to low matte production to …

Lithium battery recycling and recovery | Flash Battery

Feb 10, 2021· Lithium battery recycling processes consist in multiple processing steps, which can be divided into two main types: Physical processes. These include the disassembly, separation and shredding of the lithium battery components, exploiting the different physical characteristics of the materials in them (e.g. density, magnetic properties, solubility).

Process for refining high-impurity copper to anode copper ...

Sep 20, 1996· Despite the energy and environmental advantages of single-stage smelting and converting techniques, the inability of these techniques to effectively remove arsenic, antimony, and bismuth presents a problem because the impurities pass through conventional blister copper refining stages and accumulate in the anode copper at levels which, as ...

METALLURGY OF COPPER-EXTRACTION OF COPPER-BLISTER …

Blocks of blister copper are used as anodes and thin sheets of pure copper act as cathodes. The cathode plates are coated with graphite in order to remove depositing copper. The electrolyte is copper sulphate (CuSO4) mixed with a little amount of …

Gen Chem II EXAM #4 Flashcards | Quizlet

B. oxygen is liberated at the anode C. oxygen is liberated at the cathode D. water is oxidized to hydrogen. ... A. Converting the metal into a gaseous compound to remove impurities B.Converting the metal to a liquid to remove impurities C. Allowing the metal to undergo electrolysis in water D. a chemical reaction with mercury.

Kennecott Copper Mine Utah | Flickr

After being cooled, the copper matte is crushed and fed into a flash converting furnace, which removes most of the remaining impurities to produce a molten copper, called blister, which is about 98% copper. Anode furnaces refine it further, and the copper is cast into plates called anodes, weighing about 700 pounds each and containing 99.6% copper.

Chapter 6 Copper Production Technology

impurities. includina sulfur 0.0058 0.2-6.0 0.2-6.0 0.5-6.0 0.5-6.0 20-300/o dry 30-40°/0 reverb, 50-75°/0 flash 98-99 98-99 99.99 Formation of the earth Concentration of copper in earth's crust Location of economic resource Remove ore from ground and surrounding rock or overburden Creation of large surface area as preparation for flotation

Reaction Sequences in Flash Smelting and Converting ...

Aug 10, 2021· Abstract Flash smelting and flash converting are mature technologies in copper and nickel sulfide smelting. The sensitivity of operation concerning the furnace design is evident. It is obvious that when two unit operations are carried out in separate spaces in the same furnace, skills related to maintenance of suspension oxidation of fine minerals, fluxing, fluid as well as …

Understanding Impurities in copper electrometallurgy

impurities in copper electrowinning and electrorefining. The first part evaluates the addition of Hydrostar, Cyquest N-900, DXG-F7, and Guartec EW to copper electrowinning electrolyte to affect MnO. 2. deposition on coated titanium anodes (CTAs). The second part examines the effects of anode chemistry and thiourea addition on the

Metallographic preparation of copper Application Notes

Feb 11, 2020· In a converter air is blown into the liquid matte to oxidise the sulphides. The result-ing blister copper contains approx. 96-98% copper. 3. Anode copper, 99% Cu: Blister copper is refined in the anode furnace. It is melted with copper scrap and rests of anodes from the electrolytic refining. Air blowing the melt, produces an

RECENT TRENDS IN OUTOKUMPU PRACTICE FOR …

2.1. Anode Composition Most of the impurities are introduced to the tankhouse in thc anodes. Because of the varicty of conccntrates and differcnt inLcrmediatc products or residues from other plants of the company the impurity level of Outokumpu anodes has greatly increased in recent years and the variations in anode analysis are large (Table 1).

Waste Heat Recovery and Reuse of Flue Gas in Copper ...

In the paper, we take current relatively advanced, the most widely used flash smelting furnace, converter and rotary anode furnace as the examples, …

12.3 Primary Copper Smelting

(FeS), and some heavy metals. Converting the matte yields a high-grade "blister" copper, with 98.5 to 99.5 percent copper. Typically, blister copper is then fire-refined in an anode furnace, cast into "anodes", and sent to an electrolytic refinery for further impurity elimination.

Blister Copper - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

The processed blister copper, also known as copper anode is cast into anode shapes. Impurities are oxidized and reported to slag phase. Precious metals are not oxidized and remain in the host metal until later recovered during electrolytic operations. The purity of copper anode varies from 99% Cu to 99.6% Cu.

Copper processing - Roasting, smelting, and converting ...

Copper processing - Copper processing - Roasting, smelting, and converting: Once a concentrate has been produced containing copper and other metals of value (such as gold and silver), the next step is to remove impurity elements. In older processes the concentrate, containing between 5 and 10 percent water, is first roasted in a cylindrical, refractory-lined …

(PDF) KENNECOTT-OUTOTEC 'DOUBLE FLASH' TECHNOLOGY …

In a real process, for instance Flash Converting Furnace, the temperature is kept even higher, at 1260 C due to the effect of impurities [1]. The target Cu in slag is 20-22 wt% to control the ...

Definitions - International Copper Study Group

During the conversion process, sulphur, iron and other impurities are oxidised. The copper content is normally about 98 % by weight. It is the product of a converting furnace. Copper anodes for electrolytic refining: Copper partly refined by complete fusion is cast into anodes for further refining by electrolysis.

Application Practice of Bottom Blowing Continuous ...

Jan 01, 2019· The continuous converting that have been industrially applied are flash continuous converting, Mitsubishi continuous converting, Noranda continuous converting, Bottom Blowing Continuous converting and multi-lance top blowing continuous converting ... A Kinetic Model of Anode Copper Reduction and Comparison wit ... The Effect of Impurities on …

Unit 5: Electrochemistry Flashcards | Quizlet

-consists of nickel plated cathode, cadmium plated anode, and a potassium hydroxide electrode-rechargeable-contains toxic heavy metals= never open Lithium Ion Battery-most popular-used in portable electronic devices Lead Acid Battery-used in automobiles-consists of pairs of plates made of Pb(s) and PbO2(s) immersed in dilute H2So4

The Study of Copper Anodes in Acid and Cyanide Plating ...

Sep 16, 2015· The results indicate that silver is a harmful impurity. Anode performance in copper sulfate plating baths. Five 15-gallon air-agitated copper sulfate baths were operated for 26 days (19,340 A-hr) to compare the oxygen-free cast anodes with rolled, reverse-electrolysis, conventional electrolytic, and conventional cast copper anodes. ...

Smelting Furnace - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

The flash techniques reduce the energy demand to about 20 million Btu/T of produced cathode copper. The SO 2 concentration in the off-gases from flash furnaces also is higher, over 30%, and less expensive to convert to sulfuric acid. The INCO process results in 80% sulfur dioxide in the off-gas. Flash processes have been in use since the early ...

Typical Wear Phenomena Observed on Refractories out of the ...

Jan 01, 2019· Other technologies include Hoboken Converter, TBRC but also Flash Converting Furnace and bath smelting furnaces (ISA, Ausmelt) (Davenport et al., 2002). For fire refining two types of furnaces are used – the rotary furnace type is dominantly used in the primary production route while secondary smelters tend to use hearth refining furnaces ...

Copper extraction - Wikipedia

Copper extraction refers to the methods used to obtain copper from its ores.The conversion of copper consists of a series of physical and electrochemical processes. Methods have evolved and vary with country depending on the ore source, local environmental regulations, and other factors.. As in all mining operations, the ore must usually be beneficiated (concentrated).

Peirce-Smith Converter – Kumera – Creating Efficiency ...

In converting, the impurities are removed from copper matte. The most important are iron, sulphur, lead, zinc, arsenic, antimony, tin and bismuth. At the converting stage gold, silver, nickel and selenium remain in the copper. ... The increase in copper content achieved during the converting phase after flash smelting is from 55-70% to 98%.

US5849061A - Process for refining high-impurity copper to ...

A process for refining high-impurity blister copper to anode quality copper is disclosed. In an oxidation step of a blister copper refining stage, soda ash fluxing removes antimony and arsenic while also removing sulfur and iron. In a deoxidation step of the blister copper refining stage, sulfur hexafluoride is injected at a controlled oxygen concentration to remove bismuth while …

Sputtering - Wake Forest University

with a neutral gas atom converting it to a positively charged ion. • The process results in two electrons which can then collide with other gas atoms and ionize them creating a cascading process until the gas breaks down. • The breakdown voltage depends on the pressure in the chamber and the distance between the anode and the cathode.

Copper Production Processes :: Total Materia Article

The flash techniques reduce the energy demand to about 20 million Btu/ton of produced cathode copper. The sulfur dioxide concentration in the off gases from flash furnaces is also higher, over 30%, and less expensive to convert to sulfuric acid (note: the INCO process results in 80% sulfur dioxide in the off gas).

(PDF) KENNECOTT-OUTOTEC 'DOUBLE FLASH' TECHNOLOGY AFTER …

In a real process, for instance Flash Converting Furnace, the temperature is kept even higher, at 1260 C due to the effect of impurities [1]. The target Cu in slag is 20-22 wt% to control the ...